Defines the dependence syndrome as being a cluster of physiological, behavioural, and cognitive phenomena in which the use of a substance or a class of substances takes on a much higher priority for a given individual than other behaviours that once had greater value

Risk Factors

  • There is no single factor that can predict whether or not a person will become addicted to drugs.
  • There is a mixture of genetic, environmental and developmental factors that influence addiction risk.
  • The more risk factors a person has, the greater the chance that drug use will lead to addiction.

Among the most important risk factors:

  • Negative family conditions
  • Impact of the surrounding environment and bad companions
  • Misconceptions about psychotropic substances
  • Availability of the drug
  • Laws and policies
  • Genetic factors

Stages of Addiction

  • The first experience
  • Repeated misuse
  • Abuse
  • dependency

Why do psychotropic substances lead to addiction?

The brain changes that occur over time due to the use of psychotropic substances, there is an imbalance in the self-control process of the addict and interferes with his ability to resist the strong incentives to use drugs. This is why drug addiction is also a relapsing disease

Signs and Symptoms

  • The way of speaking (speaking): slow / fast speaking / incomprehensible speech / hallucination and speaking strange
  • Frequent forgetfulness
  • Frequent forgetfulness
  • Emotional agitation and rapid anger
  • Loss of focus and difficulty in following up with others, frequent nodding and drowsiness
  • Eye: redness, severe dilatation / narrowing of the pupil
  • Pallor and yellowing of the face
  • Weight loss
  • Inability to balance or stagger while walking
  • Excessive sweating
  • Nose: itch / runny nose (nosebleeds)
  • Try to hide the smell of wine / smoke: excessive consumption of chewing gum, mouth flavors, flavored drinks and the use of perfumes
  • Scars and marks of wounds in different areas of a person's body. (As a result of using the injection or because the person is trying to harm themselves)

Addiction Behaviors

These symptoms begin to appear gradually during the addictive stage, the most important of which are:

  • Feeling the desire to use the substance regularly. You may reach daily use or several times per day
  • Failure to stop using.
  • Ensure that an adequate quantity of the drug is taken.
  • Wasting money in order to obtain the material despite the high cost of it.
  • To carry out dangerous and illegal actions and behaviors that a person usually does not, only to obtain the material. (Example: theft)
  • Feeling the need for narcotic drugs to be able to cope with daily problems.
  • Exposing oneself and others to danger due to the effect of the drug. (Example: driving a vehicle under the influence of substances / alcohol)
  • Wasting time focusing on providing the drug, using it in the right place, and hiding the fact that it is being used by family, friends and security personnel.

Addiction complications

Health and psychological:

  • brain poisoning
  • Heart and liver diseases and various types of cancer
  • AIDS and viral hepatitis
  • Mental illnesses: early memory loss
  • psychological depression
  • Schizophrenia and psychosis


  • Violence
  • Crime
  • Loss of shelter
  • family disintegration


  • due to accidents, injuries or deaths
  • Medical costs
  • Loss of work
  • Debts